Impact of Structured Training on Football Agility in Under-15 Players: A Comparative Analysis


  • Ardo Okilanda Universitas Negeri Padang
  • Rafel Orlando MTSN 1 Musi Rawas Utara
  • Arisman Arisman Universitas Negeri Jakarta



The objective of this research is to examine the impact of organized training interventions on the football agility of under-15 players at SSB Muspan. The main goal is to compare the Football Agility Score (FAS) values obtained from initial and post-training evaluations, taking into account various agility dynamics, real-world significance, and personalized reactions. Participants were subjected to a thorough agility assessment both before and after a predetermined training program, during which distances and timings were measured and recorded. The FAS, determined by multiplying the ratio of distance to time by a fixed factor, was used as a precise quantitative indicator of agility. The research used rigorous analysis to reveal the subtle effects of the training program on agility, taking into account characteristics such as quick changes in direction, acceleration, and deceleration. The comparison research showed a significant rise in post-training FAS values, suggesting a beneficial impact on participants' football agility. The results provide valuable practical knowledge for coaches, trainers, and sports scientists, emphasizing the need for customized training regimens that take into account individual reactions and agility dynamics. This research adds to the wider discussion in sports science by providing detailed insights on how to improve football agility in the specific age group of under-15s.


Arslan, E., Orer, G., & Clemente, F. (2020). Running-based high-intensity interval training vs. small-sided game training programs: Effects on the physical performance, psychophysiological responses and technical skills in young soccer players. Biology of Sport, 37(2), 165–173.

Attar, M., & Abdul-Kareem, A. (2020). The Role of Agile Leadership in Organisational Agility. In B. Akkaya (Ed.), Agile Business Leadership Methods for Industry 4.0 (pp. 171–191). Emerald Publishing Limited.

Bento, A. F. P. da S. (2023). Effects of a high-intensity interval training program integrated in high-school physical education classes, on physical fitness, physical activity and motivation in adolescents.

Button, C., Seifert, L., Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., & Araujo, D. (2020). Dynamics of skill acquisition: An ecological dynamics approach. Human Kinetics Publishers.

Clauss, M., Gérard, P., Mosca, A., & Leclerc, M. (2021). Interplay between exercise and gut microbiome in the context of human health and performance. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8, 637010.

Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Beltrán-Velasco, A. I., Ramos-Campo, D. J., Mielgo-Ayuso, J., Nikolaidis, P. A., Belando, N., & Tornero-Aguilera, J. F. (2022). Physical activity and COVID-19. The basis for an efficient intervention in times of COVID-19 pandemic. Physiology & Behavior, 244, 113667.

Connor, J. D., Berkelmans, D., & Doma, K. (2023). Examining the Talent Selection Determinants of Ultimate Frisbee Players Selected Into a National Youth Team. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 18(11), 1263–1268.

Danek, N., Smolarek, M., Michalik, K., & Zatoń, M. (2020). Comparison of acute responses to two different cycling sprint interval exercise protocols with different recovery durations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(3), 1026.

Ericsson, K. A. (2020). Towards a science of the acquisition of expert performance in sports: Clarifying the differences between deliberate practice and other types of practice. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(2), 159–176.

Foster, C., Boullosa, D., McGuigan, M., Fusco, A., Cortis, C., Arney, B. E., Orton, B., Dodge, C., Jaime, S., & Radtke, K. (2021). 25 years of session rating of perceived exertion: Historical perspective and development. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 16(5), 612–621.

Francis, D. L. (2020). Exploiting Agility for Advantage: A Step-by-Step Process for Acquiring Requisite Organisational Agility. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.

Graham, J., & Barnes, M. (2023). Metabolic Training: The Ultimate Guide to the Ultimate Workout. Human Kinetics.

Hannon, M. P. (2020). Energy requirements of male academy soccer players from the English Premier League. Liverpool John Moores University (United Kingdom).

Hassan, M. S. I. H. I. (2013). Performance diagnostics quantitative methods to provide training consequences. Doctor Thesis, Bergische University of Wuppertal.

Hill, M., Scott, S., McGee, D., & Cumming, S. (2020). Coaches’ Evaluations of Match Performance in Academy Soccer Players in Relation to the Adolescent Growth Spurt. Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise, 2(4), 359–366.

Johnson, A. P. (2008). Teaching reading and writing: A guidebook for tutoring and remediating students. R&L Education.

Lutz, J., Memmert, D., Raabe, D., Dornberger, R., & Donath, L. (2020). Wearables for integrative performance and tactic analyses: Opportunities, challenges, and future directions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(1), 59.

Marin, A., Stefanica, V., & Rosculet, I. (2023). Enhancing Physical Fitness and Promoting Healthy Lifestyles in Junior Tennis Players: Evaluating the Influence of “Plyospecific” Training on Youth Agility. Sustainability, 15(13), 9925.

Morral-Yepes, M., Moras, G., Bishop, C., & Gonzalo-Skok, O. (2022). Assessing the reliability and validity of agility testing in team sports: A systematic review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 36(7), 2035–2049.

Morrow, R. (2019). An 8 week neuromuscular training programme reduces the risk of ACL injury and increases athletic performance variables in female court sport athletes [PhD Thesis, University of Lincoln].

Newman, S. A., & Ford, R. C. (2021). Five steps to leading your team in the virtual COVID-19 workplace. Organizational Dynamics, 50(1), 100802.

Newport, R. A., Knight, C. J., & Love, T. D. (2021). The youth football journey: Parents’ experiences and recommendations for support. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 13(6), 1006–1026.

Santoso, A. M., & Yuzarion, Y. (2021). Analysis of Learning Agility in the Performance of Achievement Teachers in Yogyakarta. PEDAGOGIK: Jurnal Pendidikan, 8(1), 77–122.

Serra, P., Rey-Cao, A., Camacho–Miñano, M. J., & Soler-Prat, S. (2022). The gendered social representation of physical education and sport science higher education in Spain. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 27(4), 382–395.

Syamsudin, F., Wungu, C. D. K., Qurnianingsih, E., & Herawati, L. (2021). High-intensity interval training for improving maximum aerobic capacity in women with sedentary lifestyle: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Physical Education and Sport®(JPES), 21(4), 1788–1797.

Teixeira, J. E., Alves, A. R., Ferraz, R., Forte, P., Leal, M., Ribeiro, J., Silva, A. J., Barbosa, T. M., & Monteiro, A. M. (2022). Effects of chronological age, relative age, and maturation status on accumulated training load and perceived exertion in young sub-elite football players. Frontiers in Physiology, 13, 547.

Tierney, P. (2021). Wearable Technology in Football Further Education Settings in the United Kingdom [PhD Thesis, Liverpool John Moores University].

Woods, R., & Butler, B. N. (2020). Social issues in sport. Human Kinetics Publishers.

Young, W., & Rogers, N. (2014). Effects of small-sided game and change-of-direction training on reactive agility and change-of-direction speed. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(4), 307–314.

Zhang, J., Mi, J., & Liu, R. (2023). Effects of integrative neuromuscular training on change of direction performance in court-based sports players: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 18(6), 2306–2320.


Additional Files