The Effect Of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Slow Deep Breathing Combinations on Sleep Quality of Pregnant Women




sleep quality, progressive muscle relaxation, slow deep breathing, third trimester pregnant women, sleep habit, exercise in pregnancy, training, autogenic, relaxation, pregnancy


Several studies suggest that poor sleep quality has an impact on both the mother and the fetus. Providing relaxation exercises in the form of progressive muscle relaxation and slow deep breathing can be a non-pharmacological effort to improve sleep quality in pregnant women. This study aims to analyze the effect of a combination of progressive muscle relaxation and slow deep breathing in pregnant women of third trimester. This research method is pre-experimental designs with a pretest-posttest control group design. The number of samples was 24 pregnant women trimester III with the sampling technique using consecutive sampling. The independent variable is the provision of progressive muscle relaxation and slow deep breathing exercises which are carried out for 3 times on a week over a period of 3 weeks. The dependent variable is sleep quality which is measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. Data analysis used the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The results showed a decrease in the mean value in the direction of improved sleep quality by a difference of 4.5 in the experimental group. Whereas in the control group there was an increase in the value which led to a deteriorating sleep quality by a difference of 1.42. The test results showed a difference in the pretest and posttest of the two groups p = 0.000 (p <0.05). These data indicate that there is an effect of a combination of progressive muscle relaxation and slow deep breathing on the sleep quality pregnant women of third trimester.


Author Biographies

Mufidah Sheena Andani Prastini, Airlangga University

Program Studi Kebidanan  Fakultas Kedokteran  Universitas Airlangga

Lilik Herawati, Airlangga University

fakultas kedokteran universitas airlangga

Endyka Erye Frety, Airlangga University

Program Studi Kebidanan Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Airlangga

Aditiawarman Aditiawarman, airlangga university

fakultas kedokteran universitas airlangga


Abbott, S. M., Attarian, H. and Zee, P. C. (2014) ‘Sleep disorders in perinatal women’, Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Elsevier Ltd, 28(1), pp. 159–168. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.09.003.

Akmeşe, Z. B. and Oran, N. T. (2014) ‘Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Exercises Accompanied by Music on Low Back Pain and Quality of Life During Pregnancy’, Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 59(5), pp. 503–509. doi: 10.1111/jmwh.12176.

Cicek, S., & Basar, F. (2017). The Effects of Breathing Techniques Training on The Duration of Labor and Anxiety Levels of Pregnant Women. Complement Ther Clin Pract 29:213-219. Available from : 2264.

Erford, B. T. (2016). Techniques Every Counselor Should Know (2nd ed.) Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Facco FL, Kramer J, et al. (2010). Sleep disturbances in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 115: 77-83.

Hilda Oktriyeni (2019) ‘Kecerdasan Gerak Dalam Pendidikan Jasmani’, Halaman Olahraga Nusantara, 2(April), pp. 33–35.

Indrawan, Y. and Riyoko, E. (2020) ‘Kebijakan Dispora Kota Palembang Dalam Megembangkan Minat Masyarakat Untuk Berolahraga’, Halaman Olahraga Nusantara (Jurnal Ilmu Keolahragaan), 3(2), p. 157. doi: 10.31851/hon.v3i2.4449.

Kottler, J. A., & Chen, D. D. Stress Management and Prevention (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge; 2011.

Naghi, I. et al. (2011) ‘Sleep disturbance in late pregnancy and type and duration of labour’, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 31(6), pp. 489–491. doi: 10.3109/01443615.2011.579196.

Okilanda, A. (2018) ‘Revitalisasi Masyarakat Urban/Perkotaan Melalui Olahraga Petanque’, Halaman Olahraga Nusantara (Jurnal Ilmu Keolahragaan), 1(1).

Özkan, S. A. and Rathfisch, G. (2018) ‘The effect of relaxation exercises on sleep quality in pregnant women in the third trimester: A randomized controlled trial’, Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 32(May), pp. 79–84. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.05.008.

Pires, G. N. et al. (2010) ‘Sleep impairment during pregnancy: Possible implications on mother-infant relationship’, Medical Hypotheses. Elsevier Ltd, 75(6), pp. 578–582. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2010.07.036.

Reichner, C. A. (2015) ‘Insomnia and sleep deficiency in pregnancy’, Obstetric Medicine, 8(4), pp. 168–171. doi: 10.1177/1753495X15600572.

Román-Gálvez, R. M. et al. (2018) ‘Factors associated with insomnia in pregnancy: A prospective Cohort Study’, European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. Elsevier Ireland Ltd, 221, pp. 70–75. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2017.12.007.

Sepdianto, T. C., Nurachmah, E. and Gayatri, D. (2010) ‘Penurunan Tekanan Darah dan Kecemasan Melalui Latihan Slow Deep Breathing Pada Pasien Hipertensi Primer’, Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia, 13(1), pp. 37–41. doi: 10.7454/jki.v13i1.229.

Setiawan, Ipang and Triyanto, H. (2014) ‘Pengembangan Permainan Tradisional Gobak Sodor Bola Dalam Pembelajaran Penjas Pada Siswa SD’, media ilmu keolahragaan indonesia, 4(1).

Setyaningrum, N., Permana, I. and Yuniarti, F. A. (2018) ‘Progressive Muscle Relaxation dan Slow Deep Breathing pada Penderita Hipertensi’, Jurnal Persatuan Perawat Nasional Indonesia (JPPNI), 2(1), p. 33. doi: 10.32419/jppni.v2i1.81.

Syarif, H. and Putra, A. (2014) ‘Pengaruh Progressive Muscle Relaxation Terhadap Penurunan Kecemasan Pada Pasien Kanker Yang Menjalani Kemoterapi; a Randomized Clinical Trial’, Idea Nursing Journal, 5(2), pp. 1–5.